Métodos indirectos para evaluar cogniciones implícitas hacia el alcohol: una revisión conceptual

Autores/as

  • María Ayelén Biscarra Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
  • Karina Conde Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
  • Mariana Cremonte Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
  • Ruben Ledesma Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v16i1.241

Palabras clave:

alcohol, cogniciones implícitas, métodos indirectos, modelo del doble procesamiento, revisión

Resumen

Resumen

Desde su aparición, en la década del 70, el Modelo del Doble Procesamiento (MDP) ha ganado una gran popularidad en diversos ámbitos de la psicología, entre ellos, en el estudio de las adicciones. Según este modelo existirían dos sistemas cognitivos: uno explícito, conciente y controlable; y otro implícito, automático y más ligado a la intuición y al afecto. El MDP se ha empleado para comprender los factores que subyacen a los comportamientos relacionados con el alcohol y en poco tiempo se produjo un crecimiento exponencial de las investigaciones que utilizan métodos indirectos para evaluar cogniciones implícitas hacia el alcohol (CIA). Si bien estos métodos comparten algunas características básicas, difieren en aspectos importantes (evidencias de validez disponibles, condiciones de administración, etc). Por ello, con este trabajo pretendemos ofrecer un panorama comprensivo de las distintas formas de evaluar la CIA. Esperamos que esta revisión resulte de utilidad no solo para los investigadores, sino también para los profesionales que se ocupan de los problemas relacionados con el alcohol en el ámbito clínico.

Palabras Clave: alcohol, cogniciones implícitas, métodos indirectos, modelo del doble procesamiento, revisión.

 

Abstract

Since its emergence in the 70s, the Dual Process Model (DPM) has gained wide popularity in different fields of psychology, including the study of addictions. According to this model, there are two cognitive systems: one explicit, conscious and controllable; and another implicit, automatic and linked to intuition and affection. The DPM has been used to understand mechanisms underlying alcohol related behaviors, and quickly an exponential growth of research using indirect measures to evaluate implicit cognitions toward alcohol (ICA) occurred. While these methods share some basic features, they differ in important aspects such as validity evidence available, administration procedures, etc. Therefore, in this paper we provide a comprehensive overview of the different ways to evaluate ICA. We hope this review will be useful not only for researchers but also for professionals working in the clinical area with alcohol-related problems.

Key words: alcohol, implicit cognitions, indirect measures, dual process model, review.

Citas

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2016-01-31

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