ALTERACIONES EN LA CONDUCCIÓN SIMULADA DE VEHÍCULOS, IMPULSIVIDAD Y ATENCIÓN EN LA FASE ASCENDENTE Y DESCENDENTE DE LA INTOXICACIÓN POR ALCOHOL

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v21i1.543

Palabras clave:

administración aguda de alcohol, conducción de vehículos, atención, inhibición de respuesta

Resumen

Objetivos. Se analizó el desarrollo de tolerancia aguda a los efectos del alcohol (dosis = 0.08%) sobre la capacidad de conducción de automotor – medida con un simulador -- y los efectos de esta dosis de alcohol sobre inhibición de respuesta en curso y procesos atencionales. Metodología. Los participantes (n = 56, edad= 22± 2.92 años) fueron distribuidos en un diseño factorial 2 (sexo [varón o mujer]) x 2 (tratamiento [alcohol o placebo]), con una medición pre-test y dos post-test. Cada medición post-test estuvo caracterizada por niveles similares de alcohol en aliento, correspondientes a la curva ascendente y descendente de la concentración de alcohol. Resultados. Análisis de varianza de medidas repetidas mostraron que quienes recibieron alcohol, comparados con quienes recibieron placebo, tuvieron más desvíos, excesos de velocidad y colisiones contra estructuras en ambos posts-test. Quienes recibieron alcohol exhibieron, al comparar las mediciones del post-test 2 con las del post-test 1, una cantidad similar de desvíos y colisiones contra estructuras, pero un aumento de excesos de velocidad. El alcohol afectó el proceso de atención en el post-test 1, pero no en el post-test 2. Discusión. El alcohol indujo, en las fases ascendente y descendente, deterioro en la capacidad de conducción, así como en atención e impulsividad. Se observó desarrollo de tolerancia aguda en los procesos atencionales. Estos resultados suman evidencia sobre los efectos negativos del alcohol en la conducción de vehículos y en procesos asociados a la conducción.

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2021-03-10

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