Prácticas sexuales y conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA entre usuarios de drogas en una comunidad urbana de bajos ingresos en Costa Rica

Manuel Chacón Ortiz, Kenia Barrantes, Rosario Achí, Mary Comerford, Clyde McCoy,

Resumen


La transmisión del VIH/SIDA entre consumidores de drogas se asocia con factores como, educación, prácticas sexuales y consumo de sustancias. Este estudio examinó los conocimientos 159 usuarios de drogas, las creencias y el comportamiento sexual relacionado con el riesgo de VIH / SIDA en Costa Rica. Los resultados mostraron un uso considerable de marihuana, alcohol, crack y cocaína y una incidencia muy baja de otras drogas. Todos los patrones de consumo de sustancias fueron más altos que los promedios nacionales. Los encuestados mostraron un alto nivel de conocimiento sobre la transmisión y prevención del VIH/SIDA. Se concluye que el tener el conocimiento adecuado sobre la transmisión y prevención no garantiza las prácticas de sexo seguro. Nuevas investigaciones y prácticas basadas en la evidencia de salud pública para la prevención del VIH / SIDA deben dirigirse población de usuarios de drogas

Palabras clave


América Centra, Costa Rica, Uso de drogas, HIV/SIDA, Prácticas sexuales

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Aceijas, C., Stimson, G. V, Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users. AIDS, 18(17), 2295–2303. Retrieved from http://content.wkhealth.com/linkback/openurl?sid=WKPTLP:landingpage&an=00002030-200411190-00010

Ballester, R., Salmerón, P., Gil, M. D., & Gómez, S. (2012). Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV Infection in Spanish Male Sex Workers: Differences According to Educational Level, Country of Origin and Sexual Orientation. AIDS and behavior, 16(4), 960–8. doi:10.1007/s10461-011-9964-4

Bastos, F. I., Cáceres, C., Galvão, J., Veras, M. A., & Castilho, E. A. (2008). AIDS in Latin America: assessing the current status of the epidemic and the ongoing response. International journal of epidemiology, 37(4), 729–37. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn127

Bejarano, J., Ahumada, G., & Sánchez, G. (2011). Perception of Risk and Drug Use: An Exploratory Analysis of Explanatory Factors in Six Latin American Countries. cdn2.hermes-soft.com, 1(1), 9–17. Retrieved from http://cdn2.hermes-soft.com/investigaciones/epidemiologica/International Drug Alcohol and Tobaco Research.pdf

Bertoni, N., Singer, M., Silva, C. M., Clair, S., Malta, M., & Bastos, F. I. (2011). Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Harm reduction journal, 8(1), 5. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-8-5

Beyrer, C., Malinowska-Sempruch, K., Kamarulzaman, A., Kazatchkine, M., Sidibe, M., & Strathdee, S. a. (2010). Time to act: a call for comprehensive responses to HIV in people who use drugs. Lancet, 376(9740), 551–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60928-2

Booth, R. E., Kwiatkowski, C. F., & Chitwood, D. D. (2000). Sex related HIV risk behaviors: differential risks among injection drug users, crack smokers, and injection drug users who smoke crack. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 58(3), 219–26. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10759032

Booth, R. E., Lehman, W. E. K., Dvoryak, S., Brewster, J. T., & Sinitsyna, L. (2009). Interventions with injection drug users in Ukraine. Addiction, 104(11), 1864–1873. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02660.x

Cáceres, C. F., Konda, K. a, Salazar, X., Leon, S. R., Klausner, J. D., Lescano, A. G., … Coates, T. J. (2008). New populations at high risk of HIV/STIs in low-income, urban coastal Peru. AIDS and behavior, 12(4), 544–51. doi:10.1007/s10461-007-9348-y

Cohen, J. (2006a). Struggling to Deliver on Promises and Assess HIV’s Spread. Science, 313(5786), 480–481. doi:10.1126/science.313.5786.480

Cohen, J. (2006b). Why So High? A Knotty Story . Science , 313 (5786 ), 481–483. doi:10.1126/science.313.5786.481

Delgado Hurtado, J. J., Pineda, M., Cazali, I., & Mejía, C. (2011). Knowledge of HIV transmission and condom use among HIV-positive heterosexual men and women in Guatemala. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 14(1), 58. doi:10.1186/1758-2652-14-58

Dickson-Gomez, J., Corbett, a M., Bodnar, G., Rodriguez, K., & Guevara, C. E. (2010). Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador. Social science & medicine (1982), 70(3), 351–9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.10.029

Dormitzer, C. M., Gonzalez, G. B., Penna, M., Bejarano, J., Obando, P., Sanchez, M., … Anthony, J. C. (2004). The PACARDO research project: youthful drug involvement in Central America and the Dominican Republic. Revista panamericana de salud pública = Pan American journal of public health, 15(6), 400–16. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272987

Downe, P. (1997). Constructing a complex of contagion: the perceptions of AIDS among working prostitutes in Costa Rica. Soc Sci Med, 44(10)(May), 1575–83.

Edline, B. R., Irwin, K. L., Fqaruque, S., McCoy, C. B., Word, C., Serrano, Y., … Holmberg, S. D. (1994). Intersecting epidemics- Crack coaine use and HIV infection among inner-city young adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 331(21), 1422–1427.

Galea, S., Nandi, A., & Vlahov, D. (2004). The social epidemiology of substance use. Epidemiologic reviews, 26, 36–52. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxh007

Gálvez-Buccollini, J. a, DeLea, S., Herrera, P. M., Gilman, R. H., & Paz-Soldan, V. (2009). Sexual behavior and drug consumption among young adults in a shantytown in Lima, Peru. BMC public health, 9, 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-23

Goldenberg, S. M., Strathdee, S. a, Perez-Rosales, M. D., & Sued, O. (2012). Mobility and HIV in Central America and Mexico: a critical review. Journal of immigrant and minority health / Center for Minority Public Health, 14(1), 48–64. doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9505-2

Granados Hernández, M., Brands, B., Adlaf, E., Giesbrecht, N., Simich, L., & Wright, M. da G. M. (2009). Perspectiva crítica de la familia y de personas cercanas sobre factores de riesgo familiares y comunitarios en el uso de drogas ilícitas en San José, Costa Rica . Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 17 (spe), 770–775. doi:10.1590/S0104-11692009000700003

Hamra, M., Ross, M. W., Orrs, M., & D’Agostino, A. (2006). Relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and HIV-beliefs/knowledge and behaviour in families of HIV infected children in Kenya. Tropical medicine international health TM IH, 11(4), 513–527. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16553935

IAFA. (2007). Investigaciones sobre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia. Costa Rica, 2001-2005. San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.iafa.go.cr/investigaciones/epidemiologica/Investigaciones sobre alcoholismo y farmacodependencia CR 2001 2005.pdf

IAFA. (2009). Consumo de Drogas en Costa Rica: Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional 2006 (p. 79). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.iafa.go.cr/investigaciones/epidemiologica/ENCUESTA NACIONAL SOBRE EL CONSUMO DE DROGAS en Costa Rica 2006.pdf

IAFA. (2011). Investigaciones sobre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia. Costa Rica, 2006-2010 (p. 65). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.iafa.go.cr/investigaciones/epidemiologica/Investigaciones Sobre Alcoholismo y Farmacodependencia Costa Rica 2006-2010.pdf

IAFA. (2012). Consumo de drogas en Costa Rica. Encuesta Nacional 2010. San José, Costa Rica.

Jenkins, R. a. (2011). Recruiting Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men into HIV Prevention Research: Current Status and Future Directions. AIDS and behavior. doi:10.1007/s10461-011-0037-5

Johnston, C. L., Marshall, B. D. L., Qi, J., Zonneveld, C. J., Kerr, T., Montaner, J. S. G., & Wood, E. (2011). HIV knowledge and perceptions of risk in a young, urban, drug-using population. Public health, 125(11), 791–4. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2011.09.008

Jürgens, R., Csete, J., Amon, J. J., Baral, S., & Beyrer, C. (2010). People who use drugs, HIV, and human rights. Lancet, 376(9739), 475–85. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60830-6

Kalichman, S. C., Cain, D., Zweben, A., & Swain, G. (2003). Sensation seeking, alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among men receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64(4), 564–569. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921199

Ley General del VIH/SIDA de la República de Costa Rica. (1998). San José, Costa Rica.

Madrigal, J., Schifter, J., & Feldblum, P. (1998). Female condom acceptability among sex workers in Costa Rica. AIDS education and prevention official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 10(2), 105–13.

Manji, a, Peña, R., & Dubrow, R. (2007). Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention. AIDS care, 19(8), 989–95. doi:10.1080/09540120701244935

Marston, C., & King, E. (2004). Factors that shape young people ’ s sexual behaviour : a systematic review.

Mata, L., Ramírez, G., & Quesada, J. (1995). HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica: epidemiological and sociological features, 1993. Cellular and molecular biology, 41(Suppl 1:S53-63.).

McCoy, C. B., De Gruttola, V., Metsch, L., & Comerford, M. (2011). A comparison of the efficacy of two interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users. AIDS and behavior, 15(8), 1707–14. doi:10.1007/s10461-011-9975-1

Medley, A., Kennedy, C., O’Reilly, K., & Sweat, M. (2009). Effectiveness of peer education interventions for HIV prevention in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS education and prevention official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 21(3), 181–206. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19519235

Metsch, L. R., McCoy, C. B., Miles, C. C., & Wohler, B. (2004). Prevention myths and HIV risk reduction by active drug users. AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 16(2), 150–9. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15134123

Metsch, L. R., Mccoy, C. B., Wingerd, J., & Miles, C. C. (2001). Alternative Strategies for Sexual Risk Reduction Used by Active Drug Users, 5(1).

Milloy, M.-J. S., Marshall, B. D. L., Kerr, T., Buxton, J., Rhodes, T., Montaner, J., & Wood, E. (2012). Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: a systematic review. AIDS (London, England), 26(9), 1049–63. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835221cc

Ministerio de Salud. (2010a). Prevalencia de VIH, sífilis y comportamiento de riesgo en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres del Gran Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.cipacdh.org/pdf/DVS_prevalencia_VIH_sifilis_comportamiento.pdf

Ministerio de Salud. (2010b). Plan Estratégico Nacional del VIH 2011-2015. San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/menu-superior-sobre-ministerio-ms/menu-superiores-sobre-ministerio-politicas-planes-salud-ms/doc_download/963-plan-estrategico-nacional-pen-vihsida-2011-2015

Ministerio de Salud. (2011). Informe de los resultados de la Encuesta de Salud Sexual y Reproductiva 2010. San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/inicio-menu-principal-centro-de-informacion-ms/inicio-menu-principal-centro-informacion-publicaciones-ms/doc_download/1168-informe-de-resultados-encuesta-nacional-de-salud-sexual-y-reproductiva-2010

Ministerio de Salud. (2012a). Estadísticas de VIH, SIDA y Mortalidad Por SIDA, Costa Rica 2002-2010. San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.ministeriodesalud.go.cr/index.php/inicio-vigilancia-salud-consulta-base-datos-ms/doc_details/1284-estadisticas-de-vih-y-sida-costa-rica-2002-2010

Ministerio de Salud. (2012b). Informe Nacional Sobre los Avances en la Lucha Contra el SIDA 2010-2011 (pp. 1–90). San José, Costa Rica. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/es/dataanalysis/monitoringcountryprogress/progressreports/2012countries/file,68499,es..pdf

Mizuno, Y., Purcell, D. W., Latka, M. H., Metsch, L. R., Gomez, C. a, & Latkin, C. a. (2007). Beliefs that condoms reduce sexual pleasure-gender differences in correlates among heterosexual HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs). Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 84(4), 523–36. doi:10.1007/s11524-007-9162-x

Mosack, K. E., Abbott, M., Singer, M., Weeks, M. R., & Rohena, L. (2005). If I didn’t have HIV, I'd be dead now: illness narratives of drug users living with HIV/AIDS. Qualitative health research, 15(5), 586–605. doi:10.1177/1049732304271749

Nattrass, N. (2008). Are country reputations for good and bad leadership on AIDS deserved? An exploratory quantitative analysis. Journal of Public Health, 30(4), 398–406. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdn075

OPS. (2004). La situación del VIH/SIDA en Costa Rica (p. 48). San José, Costa Rica.

Padian, N. S., McCoy, S. I., Karim, S. S. A., Hasen, N., Kim, J., Bartos, M., … Cohen, M. S. (2011). HIV prevention transformed: the new prevention research agenda. Lance, 378(9787), 269–278. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21763938

Ross, D. a. (2010). Behavioural interventions to reduce HIV risk: what works? AIDS (London, England), 24 Suppl 4, S4–14. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000390703.35642.89

Samayoa, B., Anderson, M. R., O’Sullivan, L. F., Patricia, K., Pacheco, A., Matos, A., … Arathoon, E. (2010). Does HIV VCT reduce risk behaviors? An observational study in Guatemala City. Current HIV research, 8(2), 121–6. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163346

Sánchez, J., Ruiz, F., & Torregrosa, M. (2008). Autoconcepto y búsqueda de sensaciones como predictores de conductas sexuales bajo los efectos de las drogas en universitarios. Salud y drogas, 8. Retrieved from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3062422

Sandi, L., Diaz, A., & Uglade, F. (2002). Drug use and associated factors among rural adolescents in Costa Rica. Substance use & misuse, 37(5-7), 599–611. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12117062

Simoni, J. M., Nelson, K. M., Franks, J. C., Yard, S. S., & Lehavot, K. (2011). Are peer interventions for HIV efficacious? A systematic review. AIDS and behavior, 15(8), 1589–95. doi:10.1007/s10461-011-9963-5

Singer, M., Scott, G., Wilson, S., Easton, D., & Weeks, M. (2001). “War Stories”: AIDS Prevention and the Street Narratives of Drug Users. Qualitative Health Research, 11(5), 589–611. doi:10.1177/104973201129119325

Song, Y. S., Calsyn, D. a, Doyle, S. R., Dierst-Davies, R., Chen, T., & Sorensen, J. L. (2009). Predictors of condom use among men enrolled in drug treatment programs. AIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 21(5), 460–73. doi:10.1521/aeap.2009.21.5.460

Soto, R. J., Ghee, A. E., Nunez, C. a, Mayorga, R., Tapia, K. a, Astete, S. G., … Holmes, K. K. (2007). Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and risk behaviors in vulnerable populations in 5 Central American countries. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 46(1), 101–11. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17972366

Stacy, A. W., Stein, J. A., & Longshore, D. (1999). Habit , Intention , and Drug Use as Interactive Predictors of Condom Use Among Drug Abusers. AIDS and behavior, 3(3).

The World Bank. (2006). Reducing HIV/AIDS Vulnerability in Central America: Costa Rica: HIV/AIDS Situation and Response to the Epidemic. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTHIVAIDS/Resources/375798-1103037153392/CAHIVAIDSCOSTARICAFINAL.pdf

UNAIDS. (2009). AIDS Epidemic Update 2009. Joint United Nations Programme on HIVAIDS UNAIDS and World Health Organization WHO. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/EpiUpdate/EpiUpdArchive/2009/default.asp

UNAIDS. (2010). Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2010. Urban Research (Vol. 3, p. 364). UNAIDS. doi:10.1080/17535069.2010.481379

Watters, J. K., & Biernacki, P. (1989). Targeted Sampling: Options for the Study of Hidden Populations. Social Problems, 36(4), 416–430. doi:10.1525/sp.1989.36.4.03a00070

Wheeler, D. a, Arathoon, E. G., Pitts, M., Cedillos, R. a, Bu, T. E., Porras, G. D., … Sosa, N. R. (2001). Availability of HIV care in Central America. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 286(7), 853–60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11497545

Williams, M., Bowen, A., Atkinson, J. S., Nilsson-Schönnesson, L., Diamond, P. M., Ross, M. W., & Pallonen, U. E. (2011). An assessment of brief group interventions to increase condom use by heterosexual crack smokers living with HIV infection. AIDS Care, 24(2), 220–231. doi:10.1080/09540121.2011.597707




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v14i1.199

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Health and Addictions Journal/Revista Salud y Drogas
ISSN Impresión: 1578-5319
ISSN Electrónico: 1988-205X
INID - Instituto de Investigación de Drogodependencias
Universidad Miguel Hernández - Campus de Sant Joan
Crta. Nacional 332, s/n
03550-Sant Joan D'Alacant (Alicante). España.
Teléfono: 965 919 319 - Fax: 965 919 566
Email: inid@umh.es

umh inid observatorio ISAJE


Síguenos en 1 facebook