The epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroids use among secondary students (Valencia-Spain)

Víctor Agulló Calatayud, Teresa Samper Gras, Julia Aguilar Serrano, Sofía Tomás Dols

Resumen


Abstract

Background/Aims:

The consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is continuously growing in recent years among young people. The purpose of the current study was to examine the proportion of students who reported AAS use, explore other drug use among them and finally to determine the sociodemographic profile of the AAS consumption amongst a sample of students in the Valencian Region (Spain).

Methods: Data was taken from a self-administrated survey of a representative sample of 11,162 Valencian students. A total of 252 schools participated in the study. In this group, 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female, with a median age of 16.26 years (DT= 1.33).

Results: The 3,3% of surveyed students reported that they had consumed AAS. Males reported to take anabolic more frequently than females (86,2% of males, 13,8% of females; p<0.001). The older they are the more frequent the reporting of consumption -increasing from 2.5% in those aged 14, to 4.3% in those aged 18-. Among users of AAS it exists a higher prevalence of consumption of cannabis 64.2%, cocaine 23.8%, hypnotics 22.9%, ecstasy 16.8%, LSD 14% or heroine 4.1%, compare to nonusers.

Conclusion: The study shows that the consumption of steroids is mainly masculine, a clear association with polyconsumption, frequent scheming as the main source of getting them and that the consumption of these substances is bigger between those students whose family situation is characterized by the absence of a masculine figure (single mother or widow) in comparison with those whose parents are married.


Palabras clave


Anabolic steroids; Drug use; Drug use in Europe; Adolescent drug use; Epidemiology

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Agulló, V., González, G., Valderrama, J. C., & Aleixandre, R. (2008). Consumption of anabolic steroids in sport, physical activity and as a drug of abuse: an analysis of the scientific literature and areas of research. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(2), 103-109. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.036228

Agulló, V., Castelló, R., & Valderrama, J. C. (2014). Beyond elite sports: Analysis of the coverage of anabolic steroids in the Spanish press (2007–2011). Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies, 6 (2), 197-220. doi: 10.1386/cjcs.6.2.197_1

Avilez, J. L., Zevallos-Morales, A., & Taype, Rondán, A. (2017). Use of enhancement drugs amongst athletes and television celebrities and public interest in androgenic anabolic steroids. Exploring two Peruvian cases with Google Trends. Public Health, 146, 29-31. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.01.011

Bahrke, M. S., Yesalis, C. E., Kopstein, A. N., & Stephens, J. A. (2000). Risk factors associated with anabolic androgenic steroid use among adolescents. Sports Medicine, 29(6), 397-405.

Breivík, G., Hanstad, D. V., & Loland, S. (2009). Attitudes towards use of performance-enhancing substances and body modification techniques. A comparison between elite athletes and the general population. Sport in Society, 12(6), 737–754. doi: 10.1080/17430430902944183

Canuto, M. H. A., Assis-Ferreira R., & Guimarães, E. M. (2006). Uso e abuso de drogas ilícitas por jovens do 1º ano da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 24(2), 135-142.

Costa, S. H., da Cunha L. C., Yonamine, M., Pucci, L. L., Oliveira, F. G., de Souza C.G., & Leles C.R. (2010). Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 32(4), 389-395. doi: 10.1590/S1516-44462010005000023

De Ronde, W. (2019). Preventing anabolic steroid abuse: A long way to go. Journal of Internal Medicine, 285(3), 349-350. doi: 10.1111/joim.128508

Dunn, M., & White, V. (2011). The epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use among Australian secondary school students. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(1), 10-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2010.05.004

Griffiths, S., Brendan, J., Degenhardt, L., Murray, S., & Larance, B. (2018). Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic–androgenic steroid users. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37(5), 664-670. doi: 10.1111/dar.12688

Goldman, A. L., Pope, H. G., & Bhasin, S. (2019). The Health Threat Posed by the Hidden Epidemic of Anabolic Steroid Use and Body Image Disorders Among Young Men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 104(4), 1069-1074. doi: 10.1210/jc.2018-01706

Hakansson, A., Mickelsson, K., Wallin, C., & Berglund, M. (2012). Anabolic androgenic steroids in the general population: User characteristics and associations with substance use. European Addiction Research, 18(2), 83-90. doi: 10.1159/000333037

Hauger, L. E., Sagoe, D., Vaskinn, A., Arnevik, E. A., Leknes, S., Jørstad, M. L., & Bjørnebekk (2019). Anabolic androgenic steroid dependence is associated with impaired emotion recognition. Psychopharmacology. doi:10.1007/s00213-019-05239-7

Hausenblas, H. A., & Fallon, E. A. (2001). Relationship among Body Image, Exercise Behaviour and Exercice Dependence Symptoms. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 32(2), 179-185. doi: 10.1002/eat.10071

Hildebrandt, T., Lai, J. K., Langenbucher, J. W., Schneider, M., Yehuda, R., & Pfaff, D. W. (2011). The diagnostic dilemma of pathological appearance and performance enchancing drug use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 114(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.09.018

Horwitz, H., Andersen, J. T., & Dalhoff, K. P. (2019) Health consequences of androgenic anabolic steroid use. Journal of Internal Medicine, 285(3), 333-340. doi: 10.1111/joim.12850

Irigoyen-Coll, C. (2005). Esteroides y percepción del riesgo. Health and Addictions/Salud y drogas, 5(1), 119-137. doi:10.21134/haaj.v5i1.124

Jenssen, I. H., & Johannessen, K. B. (2015). Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway. Body Image, 12, 6-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.08.009

Kanayama, G., Pope Jr., H. (2018). History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 15(464), 4-13. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2017.02.039

Kartakoulis, N. L., Phellas, C., Poulokas, S., Petrou, M., & Loizou, C. (2008). The Use of Anabolic Steroids and Other Prohibited Substances by Gym Enthusiasts in Cyprus. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 43(3), 271-287. doi: 10.1177/1012690208098545

Labre, M. P. (2002). Adolescent boys and the muscular male body ideal. The Journal of adolescent health: official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30(4), 233-242. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00413-X

Lambert, M. I., Titlestad, S. D., & Schwellnus, M. (1998). Indications of prevalence use in adolescents in two regions of South Africa. South African Medical Journal, 88(7), 876-880.

Lundholm, L., Frisell, T., Lichtenstein, P., & Långström, N. (2014). Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10365 general population men. Addiction, 110(1), 100-108. doi: 10.1111/add.12715

McCullagh. (1989). Models for discrete multivariate responses. Bulletin of the I.S.I, 53, 407-418

Melia, P., Pipe, A., & Greenberg, L. (1996). The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids by Canadian students. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 6(1), 9-14.

Mulcahey, M. K., Schiller, J. R., & Hulstyn M. J. (2010). Anabolic steroid use in adolescents: identification of those at risk and strategies for prevention. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 38(3), 105-13. doi: 10.3810/psm.2010.10.1815

Nilsson, S., Baigi A., Marklund, B., & Fridlund, B. (2001). The prevalence of the use of androgenic anabolic steroids by adolescents in a county of Sweden. European Journal of Public Health, 11(2), 195–197. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/11.2.195

Petersson, A., Bengtsson, J., Voltaire-Carlsson, A., & Thiblin, I. (2010). Substance abusers’ motives for using anabolic androgenic steroids. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 111(1-2), 170-172. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.04.008

Petrocelli, M., Oberweis, T., & Petrocelli, J. (2008). Getting huge, getting ripped: A qualitative exploration of recreational steroid use. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(4), 1187–1205. doi: 10.1177/002204260803800412

Rachoń, D., Pokrywka, L., & Suchecka-Rachoń, D. K. (2006). Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland. Soz PraventivMed, 51(6), 392-398.

Sagoe, D., Molde, H., Andreassen, C., Torsheim, T., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Annals of Epidemiology, 24(5), 383-398. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2014.01.009

Sagoe, D., Mentzoni, R.A., Hanss, D., & Pallesen, S. (2016). Aggression is associated with increased anabolic androgenic steroid use contemplation among adolescents. Substance Use & Misuse, 51(11),1462-1469. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1186696

Sagoe, D., & Pallesen, S. (2018). Androgen abuse epidemiology. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 25 (3), 185-194. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000403

Sandvik, M. R., Bakken, A., & Loland, S. (2018). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and correlates in Norwegian adolescents. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(6), 903-910. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2018.1459869

Sjöqvist, F., Garle, M., & Rane, A. (2008). Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society. Lancet, 371(9627), 1872–1882. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60801-6

Skårberg, K., Nyberg, F., & Engström, I. (2009). Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids. European Addiction Research, 15(2), 99-106. doi: 10.1159 / 000199045

Smit, D.L., & de Ronde, W. (2018). Outpatient clinic for users of androgenic anabolic steroids: an overview. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 76(4), 167-175.

Tahtamouni, L. H., Mustafa, N. H., Alfaouri, A. A., Hassan, I. M., Abdalla, M. Y., & Yasin, S. R. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse among Jordanian collegiate students and athletes. Eurean Journal Public Health, 18(6), 661-665. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckn062

Thorlindsson, T., & Halldorsson, V. (2010). Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention and Policy, 5(32), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-5-32

Todd, T. (1987). Anabolic Steroids: the gremlins of sport. Journal of Sport History, 14(1), 87-107.

Van Amsterdam, J., Opperhuizen, A., & Hartgens, F. (2010). Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 57(1), 117-23. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.02.001

Vorona, E., & Nieschlag, E. (2018). Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding. Minerva Endocrinologica. 19 Feb. doi: 10.23736/S0391-1977.18.02810-9

Wichstrøm, L., & Pedersen, W. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 62(1), 5-13




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v19i2.423

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Health and Addictions Journal/Revista Salud y Drogas
ISSN Impresión: 1578-5319
ISSN Electrónico: 1988-205X
INID - Instituto de Investigación de Drogodependencias
Universidad Miguel Hernández - Campus de Sant Joan
Crta. Nacional 332, s/n
03550-Sant Joan D'Alacant (Alicante). España.
Teléfono: 965 919 319 - Fax: 965 919 566
Email: inid@umh.es

umh inid observatorio ISAJE


Síguenos en 1 facebook