Neurobiología de la Patología Dual

Luz Angela Rojas Bernal, Guillermo Alonso Castaño Pérez


Introducción: Los pacientes con Patología Dual se caracterizan por una presentación clínica heterogénea, más severa y difícil de tratar.  Debido a la frecuente asociación de ambas patologías se postula  la existencia de vías neurobiológicas comunes.

Objetivo: Revisar la bibliografía existente acerca de la neurobiología de la Patología Dual en Pubmed con las palabras clave: Dual Disorders, Dual Pathology, co-occurring disorders, concurrent disorders y Neurobiology o Neurobiological aspects, para conocer los avances que se tienen a este respecto.  Se incluyeron solo los artículos y textos que trataran el tema específico Neurobiología de la Patología Dual.

Desarrollo del tema: El presente artículo expone la relación que existe entre los trastornos mentales y los trastornos por uso de sustancias en los substratos neurobiológicos  dopaminérgico, glutamatérgico, gabaérgico, opioide, endocannabinoide y colinérgico-nicotínico.

Conclusiones: Las vías de vulnerabilidad biológicas descritas juegan un rol central para el desarrollo de la patología dual, posiblemente resultado de alteraciones comunes en el neurodesarrollo.  Este enfoque de vías neurobiológicas comunes permitirá abrir nuevos campos de investigación sobre la fisiopatología de la Patología Dual, y proveer nuevos blancos para su prevención y tratamiento.

Palabras clave

neurobiología; trastornos relacionados con sustancias; trastornos mentales; revisión

Texto completo:



Ambrosio, E., & Roncero, C. (2016). Neurobiología de la Patología Dual. Patología Dual Fundamentos clínicos y terapéuticos (1.a ed.). España: MERGE BOOKS.

Baker, D., Pryce, G., Davies, W. L., & Hiley, C. R. (2006). In silico patent searching reveals a new cannabinoid receptor. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 27(1), 1-4.

Balla, A., Hashim, A., Burch, S., Javitt, D. C., Lajtha, A., & Sershen, H. (2001). Phencyclidine-induced dysregulation of dopamine response to amphetamine in prefrontal cortex and striatum. Neurochemical Research, 26(8-9), 1001-1006.

Bandelow, B., Schmahl, C., Falkai, P., & Wedekind, D. (2010). Borderline personality disorder: a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system? Psychological Review, 117(2), 623-636.

Basavarajappa, B. S., & Hungund, B. L. (1999). Down-regulation of cannabinoid receptor agonist-stimulated [35S] GTPγS binding in synaptic plasma membrane from chronic ethanol exposed mouse. Brain research, 815(1), 89-97.

Benjet, C., Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M. E., & Méndez, E. (2013). Chronic childhood adversity and stages of substance use involvement in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1-2), 85-91.

Boileau, I., Nakajima, S., & Payer, D. (2015). Imaging the D3 dopamine receptor across behavioral and drug addictions: Positron emission tomography studies with [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(9), 1410-1420.

Cadete-Leite, A., BRANDĀO, F., Andrade, J. P., Ribeiro-da-Silva, A., & Paula-Barbosa, M. M. (1997). The GABAergic system of the dentate gyrus after withdrawal from chronic alcohol consumption: effects of intracerebral grafting and putative neuroprotective agents. Alcohol and alcoholism, 32(4), 471-484.

Carlsson, A. (1978). Antipsychotic drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(2), 164-173.

Casas, M. (2000). Trastornos duales. Trastornos afectivos: ansiedad y depresión (2nd ed). Barcelona [etc.: Masson.

Chambers, R. A. (2007). Animal Modeling and Neurocircuitry of Dual Diagnosis. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 3(2), 19-29.

Chambers, R. A., Krystal, J. H., & Self, D. W. (2001). A neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 50(2), 71-83.

Chen, Y., Song, R., Yang, R.-F., Wu, N., & Li, J. (2014). A novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 743, 126-132.

Chiara, G., Tanda, G., Bassareo, V., Pontieri, F., Acquas, E., Fenu, S., … Carboni, E. (1999). Drug addiction as a disorder of associative learning: role of nucleus accumbens shell/extended amygdala dopamine. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877(1), 461-485.

Choudary, P. V., Molnar, M., Evans, S. J., Tomita, H., Li, J. Z., Vawter, M. P., … Watson, S. J. (2005). Altered cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic signal transmission with glial involvement in depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(43), 15653-15658.

Cooper, J. R., Bloom, F. E., & Roth, R. H. (2003). The biochemical basis of neuropharmacology. Oxford University Press, USA.

Cowen, M. S., & Lawrence, A. J. (1999). The role of opioid-dopamine interactions in the induction and maintenance of ethanol consumption. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 23(7), 1171-1212.

Coyle, J. T. (2006). Glutamate and schizophrenia: beyond the dopamine hypothesis. Cellular and molecular neurobiology, 26(4-6), 363-382.

Cuthbert, B. N. (2015). Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(1), 89-97.

Davis, K. L., Kahn, R. S., Ko, G., & Davidson, M. (1991). Dopamine in schizophrenia: a review and reconceptualization. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(11), 1474-1486.

de Beaurepaire, R. (2005). Bases biochimiques et neurobiologiques de la psychiatrie. EMC - Psychiatrie, 2(1), 1-23.

Devaud, L. L. (2001). Ethanol dependence has limited effects on GABA or glutamate transporters in rat brain. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25(4), 606-611.

Edwards, S., & Koob, G. F. (2010). Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction. Future Neurology, 5(3), 393-401.

Feinberg, T. E., & Farah, M. J. (2003). Behavioral neurology and neuropsychology. McGraw-Hill Professional.

Fu, Y., Matta, S. G., Gao, W., Brower, V. G., & Sharp, B. M. (2000). Systemic Nicotine Stimulates Dopamine Release in Nucleus Accumbens: Re-evaluation of the Role ofN-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 294(2), 458-465.

George, O., Le Moal, M., & Koob, G. F. (2012). Allostasis and addiction: role of the dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor systems. Physiology & Behavior, 106(1), 58-64.

Ghazzaoui, R., & Abi-Dargham, A. (2014). Imaging dopamine transmission parameters in cannabis dependence. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 52, 28-32.

Gioanni, Y., Rougeot, C., Clarke, P. B. S., Lepouse, C., Thierry, A. M., & Vidal, C. (1999). Nicotinic receptors in the rat prefrontal cortex: increase in glutamate release and facilitation of mediodorsal thalamo‐cortical transmission. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11(1), 18-30.

González, P., Cabello, P., Germany, A., Norris, B., & Contreras, E. (1997). Decrease of tolerance to, and physical dependence on morphine by glutamate receptor antagonists. European journal of pharmacology, 332(3), 257-262.

Grace, A. A. (1991a). Phasic versus tonic dopamine release and the modulation of dopamine system responsivity: a hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroscience, 41(1), 1-24.

Grace, A. A. (1991b). The cortical regulation of dopamine system responsivity: A hypothesis regarding its role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 4(3), 345.

Grace, A. A. (1993). Cortical regulation of subcortical dopamine systems and its possible relevance to schizophrenia. Journal of Neural Transmission/General Section JNT, 91(2-3), 111-134.

Gray, J. A. (1988). Behavioural and neural-system analyses of the actions of anxiolytic drugs. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 29(4), 767-769.

Gray, R., Rajan, A. S., Radcliffe, K. A., Yakehiro, M., & Dani, J. A. (1996). Hippocampal synaptic transmission enhanced by low concentrations of nicotine. Nature, 383(6602), 713-716.

Griffith, J. D., Cavanaugh, J., Held, J., & Oates, J. A. (1972). Dextroamphetamine: Evaluation of psychomimetic properties in man. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26(2), 97-100.

Griffith-Lendering, M. F. H., Wigman, J. T. W., Prince van Leeuwen, A., Huijbregts, S. C. J., Huizink, A. C., Ormel, J., … Vollebergh, W. A. M. (2013). Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis in early adolescence-a TRAILS study: Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis. Addiction, 108(4), 733-740.

Grotenhermen, F. (2005). Cannabinoids. Current Drug Targets. CNS and Neurological Disorders, 4(5), 507-530.

Grotenhermen, F., & Russo, E. B. (2006). Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics: From Bench to Bedside;[a Compilation of Selected Articles from the Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics... from 2001 to 2004]. Haworth Press.

Hall, D. H., & Queener, J. E. (2007). Self-medication hypothesis of substance use: testing Khantzian’s updated theory. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 39(2), 151-158.

Hazlett, E. A., Buchsbaum, M. S., Jeu, L. A., Nenadic, I., Fleischman, M. B., Shihabuddin, L., … Harvey, P. D. (2000). Hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients studied with PET during performance of a serial verbal learning task. Schizophrenia research, 43(1), 33-46.

Henwood, B., & Padgett, D. K. (2007). Reevaluating the self-medication hypothesis among the dually diagnosed. The American Journal on Addictions / American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism and Addictions, 16(3), 160-165.

Hungund, B. L., & Basavarajappa, B. S. (2000). Are anandamide and cannabinoid receptors involved in ethanol tolerance? A review of the evidence. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 35(2), 126-133.

Hungund, B. L., & Basavarajappa, B. S. (2000). Distinct differences in the cannabinoid receptor binding in the brain of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, selected for their differences in voluntary ethanol consumption. Journal of neuroscience research, 60(1), 122-128.

Iseger, T. A., & Bossong, M. G. (2015). A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia Research, 162(1-3), 153-161.

Jentsch, J. D., & Roth, R. H. (1999). The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(3), 201-225.

Kalivas, P. W., Duffy, P., & Barrow, J. (1989). Regulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system by glutamic acid receptor subtypes. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 251(1), 378-387.

Kapur, S., & Remington, G. (1996). Serotonin-dopamine interaction and its relevance to schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(4), 466-476.

Kilts, C. D., Schweitzer, J. B., Quinn, C. K., Gross, R. E., Faber, T. L., Muhammad, F., … Drexler, K. P. (2001). Neural activity related to drug craving in cocaine addiction. Archives of general psychiatry, 58(4), 334-341.

Kollins, S. H., & Adcock, R. A. (2014). ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: implications for smoking and nicotine dependence. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 52, 70-78.

Krupski, A., West, I. I., Graves, M. C., Atkins, D. C., Maynard, C., Bumgardner, K., … Roy-Byrne, P. (2015). Clinical Needs of Patients with Problem Drug Use. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM, 28(5), 605-616.

Kuepper, R., Morrison, P. D., van Os, J., Murray, R. M., Kenis, G., & Henquet, C. (2010). Does dopamine mediate the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis? A review and integration of findings across disciplines. Schizophrenia Research, 121(1-3), 107-117.

Lahti, A. C., Koffel, B., LaPorte, D., & Tamminga, C. A. (1995). Subanesthetic doses of ketamine stimulate psychosis in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology, 13(1), 9-19.

Laruelle, M., Kegeles, L. S., & ABI‐DARGHAM, A. (2003). Glutamate, dopamine, and schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1003(1), 138-158.

Le Foll, B., Collo, G., Rabiner, E. A., Boileau, I., Merlo Pich, E., & Sokoloff, P. (2014). Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings. Progress in Brain Research, 211, 255-275.

Lembke, A. (2012). Time to abandon the self-medication hypothesis in patients with psychiatric disorders. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 38(6), 524-529.

Leonard, B. E. (1994). Sleep disorders and anxiety: biochemical antecedents and pharmacological consequences. Journal of psychosomatic research, 38, 69-87.

Lewis, D. A., Hashimoto, T., & Volk, D. W. (2005). Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(4), 312-324.

Liljequist, S. (1991). NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit ethanol-produced locomotor stimulation in NMRI mice. Alcohol, 8(4), 309-312.

Lodge, D., & Johnson, K. M. (1990). Noncompetitive excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 11(2), 81-86.

Malhotra, A. K., Pinals, D. A., Adler, C. M., Elman, I., Clifton, A., Pickar, D., & Breier, A. (1997). Ketamine-induced exacerbation of psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics. Neuropsychopharmacology, 17(3), 141-150.

Mansvelder, H. D., & McGehee, D. S. (2000). Long-term potentiation of excitatory inputs to brain reward areas by nicotine. Neuron, 27(2), 349-357.

Markou, A., Kosten, T. R., & Koob, G. F. (1998). Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 18(3), 135-174.

Marks, M. J., Pauly, J. R., Gross, S. D., Deneris, E. S., Hermans-Borgmeyer, I., Heinemann, S. F., & Collins, A. C. (1992). Nicotine binding and nicotinic receptor subunit RNA after chronic nicotine treatment. The Journal of neuroscience, 12(7), 2765-2784.

Matsuzawa, S., Suzuki, T., Misawa, M., & Nagase, H. (1999). Roles of 5-HT 3 and opioid receptors in the ethanol-induced place preference in rats exposed to conditioned fear stress. Life sciences, 64(21), PL241-PL249.

Matthysse, S. (1974). Dopamine and the pharmacology of schizophrenia: the state of the evidence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 11, 107-113.

McCrory, E. J., & Mayes, L. (2015). Understanding Addiction as a Developmental Disorder: An Argument for a Developmentally Informed Multilevel Approach. Current Addiction Reports, 2(4), 326-330.

Mesulam, M. (1995). Cholinergic Pathways and the Ascending Reticular Activating System of the Human Braina. Annals of the New York academy of sciences, 757(1), 169-179.

Mogenson, G. J., Jones, D. L., & Yim, C. Y. (1980). From motivation to action: functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system. Progress in neurobiology, 14(2), 69-97.

Morein-Zamir, S., Simon Jones, P., Bullmore, E. T., Robbins, T. W., & Ersche, K. D. (2013). Prefrontal Hypoactivity Associated with Impaired Inhibition in Stimulant-Dependent Individuals but Evidence for Hyperactivation in their Unaffected Siblings. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(10), 1945-1953.

Nathan, P. E., Conrad, M., & Skinstad, A. H. (2015). History of the Concept of Addiction. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology.

Nestler, E. J., & Aghajanian, G. K. (1997). Molecular and cellular basis of addiction. Science, 278(5335), 58-63.

Newcomer, J. W., Farber, N. B., Jevtovic-Todorovic, V., Selke, G., Melson, A. K., Hershey, T., … Olney, J. W. (1999). Ketamine-induced NMDA receptor hypofunction as a model of memory impairment and psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 20(2), 106-118.

Oleson, E. B., & Cheer, J. F. (2012). A brain on cannabinoids: the role of dopamine release in reward seeking. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(8).

O’Tuathaigh, C. M. P., Gantois, I., & Waddington, J. L. (2014). Genetic dissection of the psychotomimetic effects of cannabinoid exposure. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 52, 33-40.

Ouagazzal, A.-M., Kenny, P. J., & File, S. E. (1999). Stimulation of nicotinic receptors in the lateral septal nucleus increases anxiety. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11(11), 3957-3962.

Patel, V., Chisholm, D., Parikh, R., Charlson, F. J., Degenhardt, L., Dua, T., … DCP MNS Author Group. (2015). Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition. Lancet (London, England).

Peralta, V., & Cuesta, M. J. (1995). Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a confirmatory factor analysis of competing models. The American journal of psychiatry, 152(10), 1450.

Pickard, H., & Fazel, S. (2013). Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 26(4), 349-354.

Price, M. R., Baillie, G. L., Thomas, A., Stevenson, L. A., Easson, M., Goodwin, R., … Walker, G. (2005). Allosteric modulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Molecular pharmacology, 68(5), 1484-1495.

Prossin, A. R., Love, T. M., Koeppe, R. A., Zubieta, J.-K., & Silk, K. R. (2010). Dysregulation of regional endogenous opioid function in borderline personality disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(8), 925-933.

Reid, M. S., Fox, L., Ho, L. B., & Berger, S. P. (2000). Nicotine stimulation of extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens: neuropharmacological characterization. Synapse, 35(2), 129-136.

Reissner, V., Kokkevi, A., Schifano, F., Room, R., Storbjörk, J., Stohler, R., … Scherbaum, N. (2012). Differences in drug consumption, comorbidity and health service use of opioid addicts across six European urban regions (TREAT-project). European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 27(6), 455-462.

Rubino, T., & Parolaro, D. (2014). Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: a brief review of the preclinical evidence. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 52, 41-44.

Rubino, T., Zamberletti, E., & Parolaro, D. (2015). Endocannabinoids and Mental Disorders. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 231, 261-283.

Salín Pascual, R. (1997). Neurobioquimica de la Depresión. Bases bioquímicas y Farmacológicas de la Neuropsiquiatría. MacGraw Hill Interamericana, 95-147.

Samaha, A.-N., & Potvin, S. (2014). Drugs of abuse and psychiatric disorders: Neurobiological and clinical aspects. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 52, 1-3.

Sanacora, G., Gueorguieva, R., Epperson, C. N., Wu, Y.-T.,

Appel, M., Rothman, D. L., … Mason, G. F. (2004). Subtype-specific alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamatein patients with major depression. Archives of general psychiatry, 61(7), 705-713.

Segura, L. Y. (2008). Algunos aspectos psicodinámicos de los trastornos de ansiedad. Avances en Salud Mental Relacional, 7(3).

Sequeira, A., Mamdani, F., Ernst, C., Vawter, M. P., Bunney, W. E., Lebel, V., … Benkelfat, C. (2009). Global brain gene expression analysis links glutamatergic and GABAergic alterations to suicide and major depression. PloS one, 4(8), e6585.

Shoaib, M., & Stolerman, I. P. (1992). MK801 attenuates behavioural adaptation to chronic nicotine administration in rats. British journal of pharmacology, 105(3), 514-515.

Sidhpura, N., & Parsons, L. H. (2011). Endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity and addiction-related behavior. Neuropharmacology, 61(7), 1070-1087.

Steppuhn, K. G., & Turski, L. (1993). Diazepam dependence prevented by glutamate antagonists. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90(14), 6889-6893.

Swendsen, J., Conway, K. P., Degenhardt, L., Glantz, M., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., … Kessler, R. C. (2010). Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: results from the 10-year follow-up of the National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 105(6), 1117-1128.

Szerman, N., Martinez-Raga, J., Peris, L., Roncero, C., Basurte, I., Vega, P., … Casas, M. (2013). Rethinking Dual Disorders/Pathology: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, 12(1), 1-10.

Tabakoff, B., & Hoffman, P. L. (1996). Alcohol addiction: an enigma among us. Neuron, 16(5), 909-912.

Taber, M. T., & Fibiger, H. C. (1995). Electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of the rat: modulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors. The Journal of neuroscience, 15(5), 3896-3904.

Uhde, T. W., & Tancer, M. E. (1995). Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and antagonists. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry V, 2, 1939.

Vanyukov, M. M., Tarter, R. E., Kirillova, G. P., Kirisci, L., Reynolds, M. D., Kreek, M. J., … Ridenour, T. A. (2012). Common liability to addiction and «gateway hypothesis»: Theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, S3-S17.

Villa, B. A. D., & González, C. G. (2012). Actualidades en neurobiología de la depresión. Revista Latinoamericana de Psiquiatría, 11(3), 106.

Volkow, N. D., & Baler, R. D. (2014). Addiction science: Uncovering neurobiological complexity. Neuropharmacology, 76 Pt B, 235-249.

Volkow, N. D., & Koob, G. (2015). Brain disease model of addiction: why is it so controversial? The Lancet. Psychiatry, 2(8), 677-679.

Volkow, N. D., & Morales, M. (2015). The Brain on Drugs: From Reward to Addiction. Cell, 162(4), 712-725.

Volkow, N. D., Wang, G.-J., Fowler, J. S., Tomasi, D., & Telang, F. (2011). Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(37), 15037-15042.

Walter, M., Henning, A., Grimm, S., Schulte, R. F., Beck, J., Dydak, U., … Northoff, G. (2009). The relationship between aberrant neuronal activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate, altered glutamatergic metabolism, and anhedonia in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(5), 478-486.

Wise, R. A. (1998). Drug-activation of brain reward pathways. Drug and alcohol dependence, 51(1), 13-22.

Wolf, M. E., & Jeziorski, M. (1993). Coadministration of MK-801 with amphetamine, cocaine or morphine prevents rather than transiently masks the development of behavioral sensitization. Brain research, 613(2), 291-294.



Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Health and Addictions Journal/Revista Salud y Drogas
ISSN Impresión: 1578-5319
ISSN Electrónico: 1988-205X
INID - Instituto de Investigación de Drogodependencias
Universidad Miguel Hernández - Campus de Sant Joan
Crta. Nacional 332, s/n
03550-Sant Joan D'Alacant (Alicante). España.
Teléfono: 965 919 319 - Fax: 965 919 566

umh inid observatorio ISAJE

Síguenos en 1 facebook