Efecto reciproco de impulsividad y consumo de alcohol en adolescentes argentinos

Angelina Pilatti, Constanza Fernández, Anabella Viola, Julieta Soledad García, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi

Resumen


Introducción: La evidencia sugiere que niveles más altos de impulsividad se relacionan con el inicio y el incremento del consumo de alcohol y que, además, el consumo de alcohol incrementa la impulsividad y la toma de riesgos. Son escasos, sin embargo, los estudios que analizan el efecto recíproco de impulsividad y consumo de alcohol en estudios longitudinales. Objetivo: examinar, mediante un estudio longitudinal de dos mediciones, la influencia de  impulsividad (rasgo y conductual) y de la toma de riesgos sobre el posterior consumo de alcohol y, viceversa, el efecto del consumo de alcohol sobre la impulsividad y la toma de riesgos. Muestra: Participaron 161 adolescentes de 15 a 18 años (50.3% mujeres, Media de edad = 15.83, DE = 0.85) asistentes a cuatro colegios de la Ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). Procedimiento: se realizaron dos mediciones separadas por un periodo de tres meses. En cada medición, los participantes completaron una encuesta para determinar el consumo de alcohol y la impulsividad rasgo. Asimismo, completaron una batería de tres pruebas informatizadas para medir inhibición de respuesta, toma de riesgos y aversión a la demora. Resultados: El 98% tomó alcohol alguna vez en la vida y más del 50% de los adolescentes reportó consumir más de 50 gramos de alcohol por ocasión. Los resultados evidencian una relación recíproca entre impulsividad y toma de riesgos con el consumo de alcohol. El consumo de alcohol en el Tiempo 1, en especial la cantidad y frecuencia de consumo episódico elevado, impactaron sobre una mayor toma de riesgos e impulsividad rasgo (particularmente en la tendencia a actuar impulsivamente bajo estados emocionales intensos) en el Tiempo 2. Asimismo, un mayor nivel de impulsividad rasgo tuvo un efecto positivo y prospectivo sobre la frecuencia y cantidad de consumo de alcohol. Discusión: El principal hallazgo de este trabajo es indicar, en población adolescente, y con un intervalo entre mediciones de sólo tres meses, un efecto prospectivo bidireccional positivo entre consumo de alcohol, impulsividad y toma de riesgos.

 


Palabras clave


impulsividad; toma de riesgos; alcohol; adolescencia; longitudinal

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